Why we need to pay attention to the other living species with whom we share this area, and identify and record them. My thanks to Deborah Muscat, Manager of the Cumbria Biodiversity Data Centre based in Carlisle, for writing this guest post.
In mid-April Cumbria Biodiversity Data Centre (CBDC) and the Solway Coast AONB launched the Solway Nature Networks as a small project to encourage people to tell the CBDC what nature they had seen on their walks and travels around the area. So why are we doing this – surely everyone knows what nature there is on the Solway?
First, a bit about me. I have some very early memories: one is looking at wiggly things in a hole filled with water in a tree, another is poking snails to make their eyes go in. Cut to fifty years later and natural history still makes me excited – just as it did when I was four.
Having lived here for many years I have explored both the Solway coast and the plain. I know that we live with wildlife that my friends in the South can only dream about; Hares, Natterjack toads, Curlew, Grey Partridge, Corn Marigold, Mudwort (more about these later) etc. But, because we have so much wildlife it becomes commonplace, and that is when it starts to become overlooked.
This was brought home to me when I started to work in Tullie House Museum for the CBDC, a small organisation that few people have ever heard of, but one that has a unique insight into 150 years’ of Cumbria’s natural history.
A wildlife (or biological) record consists of: what was seen, where it was seen, when it was seen and by whom. Currently, CBDC has over 2.2 million individual records from the whole of Cumbria, and they include flowers, ferns, trees, seaweed, snails, worms, butterflies, beetles, flies, fish, to name but a few. But digging deeper into the data, it was clear that apart from information about birds and toads, CBDC receives only a few records from the Solway area each year.
Why does this matter? All decisions about land use, management and development must consider biodiversity and this is where biological records are vital. Increasingly makers look at dots on maps to discover the presence or absence of a species. However, an absence of a dot does not mean that something isn’t there! But if decisions are made this way then we need to make sure that we record our wildlife so as to put the dots on the map.
This leads me on to another issue. Observations of common species like the brown rat are not noted down; sightings of rare species like red squirrels are always recorded. This skews our view of what is really out there. Take the rat as an example. According to the National Biodiversity Network Atlas, an online source of information used by Government about the distribution of species in the UK, there are two records of Brown Rat on the Solway Plain. Experience tells me this is not true! The Atlas also shows a similar number of House Mouse records. Once a common sighting, few ecologists have seen a House Mouse recently and it could be becoming extinct without us even noticing. Thus we need to start recording the common species as well as the rare and interesting ones.
It was this last fact that started to make me feel guilty – I hadn’t sent a record to CBDC for years. So, inspired by our new Solway Nature Network project I too have started to take a note-book and camera with me on my local walks.
I know a bit about wildlife but I am far from being an expert. Like a lot of people I rely on photographs, books, other people and the internet to find out what I am looking at. But even with my basic knowledge I am finding out what a remarkable place the Solway is.
Anyone travelling by Dub Mill at this time of the year will see a field yellow with flowers. These are corn marigolds (Chrysanthemum segetum), a species which was probably introduced to the UK in Neolithic times with grain from the Mediterranean. Once an abundant sight in the cornfields of Britain is becoming rare.
Similarly, the nationally scarce Mudwort (Limosella gallica) thrives in the Summer on the dry muddy edges of Edderside pond. Found on only 6 sites in Cumbria this small unassuming plant is disappearing as UK ponds are not allowed to dry up, or are lost altogether.
Many people are aware that the traditional Bluebell (Hyacynthoides non-scripta) is also in decline as it hybridises with the larger Spanish Bluebell grown in many gardens. Here on the Solway Plain most of the ones we see are the native variety. This fact inspired one of the new Solway Nature Network volunteers to go out and map the Solway’s bluebells, especially those on the banks at Crosscanonby.
The more volunteers we have the more eyes there are to spot rare and unusual wildlife. One such plant is the endangered small-flowered catchfly (Silene galica). I spotted this in New Cowper several years ago. It had previously been seen in Silloth in 1877. The catchfly has now almost disappeared from Northern Europe, and I have not seen it since in New Cowper as the field was reseeded with more vigorous clover and rye grass. However, the catchfly could still be lurking in sandy soil around the edge of a field close by.
Having rediscovered the four-year-old in me I am always looking under stones, logs and leaves for “bugs”. It is surprising what has turned up. On a dog walk at very low tide near Mawbray I picked up some sandstone. Underneath I spied something that looked like a woodlouse. It turned out to be a waterlouse (Sphaeroma serratum). As it was only 0.5cm long I am not surprised that it is not something anyone had recorded before. Because I am not a waterlouse expert I needed help from someone who is.
Fortunately, CBDC is part of a network of wildlife recorders and museums and we can usually track down someone who will confirm what has been found.
Indeed, a little brown thing, about 1 cm tall that I discovered on a leaf in Flimby Woods took a year to identify. I found out from a gentleman in Scotland that it was a chocolate tube slime mould. A Google search followed and to my astonishment I learned that a slime mould consists of several different types of single-celled organisms that exist as slime on decaying plant matter. When the food starts to run out or conditions are not right these single-celled organisms begin to move and join together to create the reproductive structures that I had found. I then read that there are scientists currently studying the slime mould “decision making” algorithm which is described as “a tendency to exploit environments in proportion to their reward based on previous experience”. Apparently this is similar to the algorithm used by Amazon when it finds items that you might like to buy based on previous searches!
More recently a shiny black beetle caught my eye. Looking closely at the indentations on the wing cases and the shape of its “feet” I decided it could be the rare Chrysolina oricalcia, one of the leaf beetles. This time I sent my pictures to John, a reknown beetle expert in Whitehaven. He agreed with my identification and followed it up with “this beetle has not been seen in Cumbria since 1835.”
The more I look the more I am inspired to look again, and the more I learn – just as when I was four. We really do live in a place that is home to some amazing plants and animals. Our area is special and we should be proud that we haven’t lost as much of our wildlife as other parts of the UK. However, we still need to know more about what is here to keep it that way.
So why don’t you rediscover your inquisitive inner child and join the Solway Nature Network volunteers to find out about the wildlife on our doorstep?
To join in or find out more contact CBDC on 01228 618717 or visit their website.